Maori Development Terms
These terms describing Maori research and development have been taken from the public sector because purchasers needed specific categories to define what it was they were buying.
The Ministry of Research, Science and Technology published a report in 2004 describing the way the Governmentís investment in research, science and technology (under the Vote RS&T system) supported Maori research and behaved in relation to Maori research. The report acknowledged the new directions that were emerging with regard to who conducted Maori research, the circumstances in which the research was being conducted, and the research topics.
The report focused in particular, on the activities of the three main purchase agents under Vote RS&T: the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology, the Health Research Council, and the Royal Society of New Zealand. These three agents used different approaches that corresponded to specific terminology about what they meant by Maori research. The terms used were Maori development, Maori advancement, Maori responsiveness, Kaupapa Maori, and Kikorangi (blue sky) research.
Maori development relates to research about Maori as tangata whenua. The research is conducted by Maori, for Maori, and possibly uses Maori methodologies, with the aim of consolidating and developing Maori knowledge and deepening the Maori research skill base.
Relates to research concerning Maori as New Zealand citizens. The research focuses on achieving equity and reducing disparities between Maori and non-Maori.
Relates to an expectation that purchase agents will design research portfolios that are responsive to the needs and diverse realities of Maori.
Kaupapa Maori research
Research that uses tools based on Maori paradigms and methodologies and represents a part of the development of Maori thought, culture and worldview.
Research that is led by whanau, hapu, or iwi and addresses questions of relevance to the community. Such research is considered to be Maori-specific but of an unusual or novel nature to the public sector.
The Foundation for Research, Science and Technology went further and had descriptions to distinguish the various levels of Maori involvement in the research. These expressions appeared in the Foundationís Application Guidelines For PG&ST Research Funding 2003/04 Investment Round.
Research specifically relevant to Maori is that which typically has a low level of Maori involvement.
Research involving Maori contributes to improving outcomes for Maori and has Maori assisting in developing the research proposal, as participants, and possibly as research members.
Maori-centred research is conducted with Maori as significant participants and as senior members of the research team.
Kaupapa Maori research meets the expectations and quality standards set by Maori, responds to culturally distinct issues of importance, uses and produces Maori knowledge, and has Maori involved both as significant participants and primary researchers.
For more information, visit the MoRST Maori Innovation project.